Fire risk and fire prevention measures of flint oi

2022-08-25
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Fire risk and fire prevention measures of oil depots

all independent or enterprise affiliated warehouses and facilities used to receive, store and distribute packaged and bulk oil products such as crude oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, jet fuel, solvent oil, lubricating oil and heavy oil are called oil depots, which are referred to as oil depots for short. It is the link to coordinate crude oil production, processing, refined oil supply and product transportation. It is of great significance to ensure national defense and promote the development of national economy to do a good job in fire safety of oil depots and prevent fire accidents

I. fire hazard

1. Flammability. Oil products are organic substances, mainly composed of hydrocarbons. When oil products are exposed to fire, heating and contact with oxidants, there is a risk of combustion. The lower the flash point and spontaneous combustion point of oil products, the greater the risk of combustion

2. Explosion of steam. When the mixing ratio of oil vapor and air reaches a certain concentration range, it can explode in case of sparks

3. It is easy to accumulate static electricity. Oil products are poor conductors of static charges with high resistivity. When oil products tend to overheat, static electricity will be generated when they are rubbed during loading, unloading, filling, pumping and other operations, and strong electric fields will be accumulated. When static electricity is discharged, petroleum products will burn and explode

4. Easy to diffuse and flow. The oil with low viscosity has strong diffusion in October last year. If there is leakage, it will quickly flow around. The diffusion and mobility of oil are the risk factors leading to fire

5. Thermal expansion. After heated, the vapor pressure of petroleum products increases and the volume expands. If the container is overfilled or stored in a closed container, the container will expand, or even burst, causing a fire. The bulge of the top and bottom of some oil storage drums is caused by thermal expansion

6. Boiling and splashing. When heavy oil products are burned, some of the burned oil products overflow in large quantities, and some are violently ejected from the tank to form a huge fire column up to 70 ~ 80 meters high. The downwind spray distance of the fire column can reach about 120 meters. This "sudden boiling" phenomenon is easy to directly burn adjacent oil tanks and seriously expand the affected area

II. Fire prevention measures

1. Correctly select the storage site and reasonably arrange the storage area

(1) in order to reduce the possible interaction between the oil depot and the surrounding residential areas, industrial and mining enterprises and traffic lines due to fire accidents and reduce the degree of fire damage, there should be an appropriate safety distance between the oil depot and the surrounding buildings. 3. The current situation and development trend of China's biomedical material industry. For oil depots in areas with a basic earthquake intensity of more than 7 degrees, seismic measures must be taken in accordance with the national code for seismic design; Oil depots of grade I and II shall not be built in areas with a basic earthquake intensity of more than 9 degrees

(2) in order to ensure the safety of the oil depot and facilitate technical management, the facilities of the oil depot should be arranged in zones according to the different nature of operations and in combination with the requirements of fire prevention

(3) the location of all facilities in the oil depot should be reasonably arranged to ensure a safe environment for oil products and the smooth storage and transportation of oil products. The railway loading and unloading area is the key part of the oil depot. The railway receiving and dispatching trestle should be of non combustible structure, and our testing machine has been improving. It should be located at the edge of the oil depot as far as possible to avoid crossing the roads of the depot, and at the same time, it should be arranged in the upwind direction of the auxiliary area, with other buildings. Keep a certain distance from the structure. The truck receiving and dispatching operation area is a place where fire and explosion accidents frequently occur in the oil depot, so it should not be located in the deep part, but should be located near the population out of the oil depot, so as to be close to the highway trunk line, which is conducive to reducing the dwell time of oil loading vehicles and the resulting unsafe factors. Oil leakage and human water will cause large-scale combustion in the downstream and affect the downstream wharf and ships, Therefore, it should also be located at the downstream of various wharves and riverside buildings as far as possible

(4) the layout of the oil tanks in the oil storage area should be reasonable, and the fire dike in the tank area should be set up and equipped with sufficient fire-fighting facilities. The oil storage tanks shall be arranged in groups according to the factors such as oil and gas diffusion, flame radiation, oil product properties, oil tank types, fire fighting conditions, fire fighting forces, etc. generally, the oil tanks with the same or similar fire hazards shall be arranged in the same group. However, aboveground oil tanks should not be arranged in the same oil tank group as semi underground and underground oil tanks. The total capacity of each set of fixed roof oil tanks shall not be greater than 100000 cubic meters, and the capacity of floating roof oil tanks or inner floating roof oil tanks shall not be greater than 2000 cubic meters. Each group of oil tanks shall not exceed 12. A vent pipe similar to a breather valve should be set on the tank roof of the cave tank farm to lead the oil and gas out of the hole, and the vent pipe leading out of the hole should be arranged in the downwind direction. The water sealed oil depot can be filled with inert gas on the oil surface of the hole tank, and the hole tank water sealed wall and shaft cover plate can be set

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